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Detecting Chromosome Condensation Defects in Gulf War Illness Patients

[ Vol. 19 , Issue. 3 ]

Author(s):

Guo Liu, Christine J. Ye, Saroj K. Chowdhury, Batoul Y. Abdallah, Steven D. Horne, Denise Nichols and Henry H. Heng*   Pages 200 - 206 ( 7 )

Abstract:


Background: Gulf War Illness (GWI) impacts 25-30% of gulf war veterans. Due to its heterogeneity in both etiology and symptoms, it has been challenging to establish the commonly accepted case definition for GWI. Equally challenging are the understanding of the general mechanism of GWI and the development of biomarkers useful for its clinical diagnosis and treatment.

Objective: We have observed that chromosome condensation defects can be detected in GWI patients. To document this phenomenon in GWI, we aim to describe and compare different types of chromosomal condensation defects in GWI patients, if possible. Since chromosomal condensation represents an important step of ensuring genome integrity, condensation defects could be used as a potential biomarker of GWI.

Methods: Lymphocytes from GWI patients have been used for short term cell culture followed by chromosome slide preparation. Both Giemsa staining and multiple color spectral karyotyping (SKY) were applied to study chromosome aberrations, focusing on different types of condensation defects.

Results: At least three subtypes of Defective Mitotic Figures (DMFs) were observed. Some individuals displayed elevated frequencies of DMFs. Another type of condensation defect identified as sticky chromosomes were also observed.

Conclusion: Various types of condensation defects have been observed in GWI patients. It is rather surprising that some GWI patients exhibited a high level of chromosomal condensation defects. Previously, the elevated frequency of DMFs was only observed in cancer patients. Since chromosome condensation can be linked to other types of chromosome aberrations, as well as cellular stress conditions, the detailed mechanism and clinical impact should be further studied, especially with increased sample size.

Keywords:

Chromosome aberrations, Defective Mitotic Figures (DMFs), Fuzzy inheritance, Genome instability, Genome heterogeneity, Gulf war illness (GWI), Stress, Sticky chromosomes.

Affiliation:

Center for Molecular Medicine and Genomics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, The Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI 48201, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genomics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genomics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genomics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genomics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201

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