Yoshimi Okamoto-Uchida, Junko Izawa, Akari Nishimura, Atsuhiko Hattori, Nobuo Suzuki and Jun Hirayama* Pages 332 - 339 ( 8 )
Circadian clocks are intrinsic, time-tracking systems that bestow upon organisms a survival advantage. Under natural conditions, organisms are trained to follow a 24-h cycle under environmental time cues such as light to maximize their physiological efficiency. The exact timing of this rhythm is established via cell-autonomous oscillators called cellular clocks, which are controlled by transcription/ translation-based negative feedback loops. Studies using cell-based systems and genetic techniques have identified the molecular mechanisms that establish and maintain cellular clocks. One such mechanism, known as post-translational modification, regulates several aspects of these cellular clock components, including their stability, subcellular localization, transcriptional activity, and interaction with other proteins and signaling pathways. In addition, these mechanisms contribute to the integration of external signals into the cellular clock machinery. Here, we describe the post-translational modifications of cellular clock regulators that regulate circadian clocks in vertebrates.
Circadian clock, cellular clock, clock protein, post-translational modification, transcription, clock gene.
Division of Medicinal Safety Science, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, Department of Clinical Engineering, Faculty of Health Sciences, Komatsu University, Komatsu, Ishikawa, Department of Clinical Engineering, Faculty of Health Sciences, Komatsu University, Komatsu, Ishikawa, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Ichikawa, Chiba, Noto Marine Laboratory, Division of Marine Environmental Studies, Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Noto-cho, Ishikawa 927-0553, Department of Clinical Engineering, Faculty of Health Sciences, Komatsu University, Komatsu, Ishikawa