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Accumulating Impact of Smoking and Co-morbidities on Severity and Mortality of COVID-19 Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Author(s):

Rupesh Kumar*, Avdhesh Kumar Rai, Mayur Mausoom Phukan, Anowar Hussain, Debajit Borah, Bhaskarjyoti Gogoi, Poulomi Chakraborty and Alak Kumar Buragohain  

Abstract:


Background: High prevalence, severity, and formidable morbidity have marked the recent emergence of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The significant association with the pre-existing co-morbid conditions has increased the disease burden of this global health emergency, pushing the patients, healthcare workers and facilities to the verge of complete disruption.

Methods: Meta-analysis of pooled data was undertaken to assess the cumulative risk assessment of multiple co-morbid conditions associated with severe COVID-19. PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched from January 1st to June 27th 2020 to generate a well-ordered, analytical, and critical review. The exercise began with keying in requisite keywords, followed by inclusion and exclusion criteria, data extraction, and quality evaluation. The final statistical meta-analysis of the risk factors of critical/severe and non-critical COVID-19 infection was carried out on Microsoft Excel (Ver. 2013), MedCalc (Ver.19.3), and RevMan software (Ver.5.3).

Results: We investigated 19 eligible studies, comprising 12037 COVID-19 disease patients, representing the People’s Republic of China (PRC), USA, and Europe. 18.2% (n = 2200) of total patients had critical/severe COVID-19 disease. The pooled analysis showed a significant association of COVID-19 disease severity risk with cardiovascular disease (RR: 3.11, p < 0.001), followed by diabetes (RR: 2.06, p < 0.001), hypertension (RR: 1.54, p < 0.001), and smoking (RR: 1.52, p < 006).

Conclusion: The review involved a sample size of 12037 COVID-19 patients across a wide geographical distribution. The reviewed reports have focused on the association of individual risk assessment of co-morbid conditions with the heightened risk of COVID-19 disease. The present meta-analysis of cumulative risk assessment of co-morbidity from cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and smoking signals a novel interpretation of inherent risk factors exacerbating COVID-19 disease severity. Consequently, there exists a definite window of opportunity for increasing survival of COVID-19 patients (with high risk and co-morbid conditions) by timely identification and implementation of appropriately suitable treatment modalities.

Keywords:

COVID-19, Co-morbidity, Risk factor, SARS-CoV-2, Smoking, Acute cardiac injury, Hypertension

Affiliation:

Department of Bio-Technology, The Royal Global University, Guwahati-781035, Assam, DBT Centre for Molecular Biology and Cancer Research, Dr. B. Borooah Cancer Institute, Guwahati-781001 Assam, Department of Forest Science, Nagaland University (Central), Lumami-798627, Nagaland, Division of Life Sciences, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Gauhati-781035, Assam, Department of Bio-Technology, The Royal Global University, Guwahati-781035, Assam, Department of Bio-Technology, The Royal Global University, Guwahati-781035, Assam, Department of Bio-Technology, The Royal Global University, Guwahati-781035, Assam, Department of Bio-Technology, The Royal Global University, Guwahati-781035, Assam



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