Lai Mao-De and Xu Jing Pages 43 - 49 ( 7 )
The ribosome is essential for protein synthesis. The composition and structure of ribosomes from several organisms have been determined, and it is well documented that ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and ribosomal proteins (RPs) constitute this important organelle. Many RPs also fill various roles that are independent of protein biosynthesis, called extraribosomal functions. These functions include DNA replication, transcription and repair, RNA splicing and modification, cell growth and proliferation, regulation of apoptosis and development, and cellular transformation. Previous investigations have revealed that RP regulation in colorectal carcinomas (CRC) differs from that found in colorectal adenoma or normal mucosa, with some RPs being up-regulated while others are down-regulated. The expression patterns of RPs are associated with the differentiation, progression or metastasis of CRC. Additionally, the recent literature has shown that the perturbation of specific RPs may promote certain genetic diseases and tumorigenesis. Because of the implications of RPs in disease, especially malignancy, our review sought to address several questions. Why do expression levels or categories of RPs differ in different diseases, most notably in CRC? Is this a cause or consequence of the diseases? What are their possible roles in the diseases? We review the known extraribosomal functions of RPs and associated changes in colorectal cancer and attempt to clarify the possible roles of RPs in colonic malignancy.
Ribosomal proteins, extraribosomal functions, colorectal cancer
Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou,310058, China.